Brief reviews of the journals:
ESTONIAN JOURNAL OF EARTH SCIENCES
The September 2022 issue of the Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences contains three articles, all related to the early Palaeozoic rocks and fossils of the Baltic region.
Tomas Želvys and co-authors analysed the stable carbon isotope composition of Silurian carbonate rocks from the subsurface of eastern Lithuania, intending to solve long-standing correlation issues. The isotope curve revealed the prominent Ireviken Event and several smaller-scale environmental perturbations tied to graptolite and conodont biozones. The new data allowed the authors to correlate the shallow shelf rock succession with the international geological time scale more accurately.
Tiiu Märss with co-authors studied well-preserved fossils of osteostracan jawless vertebrates from the Silurian of Saaremaa Island, Estonia. These fossils reveal distinct morphological details of endolymphatic structures that connected the inner ear to the outer surface and controlled hearing and balance detection of the primitive vertebrates. The delicate structures, moreover, provide useful characters for distinguishing species.
Stefi Guitor and Tõnu Meidla analysed the distribution and morphology of Late Ordovician ostracods within the Baltoscandian palaeobasin. The results revealed clear spatial trends in carapace size and morphology across the basin gradient. For instance, taxa with relatively large, stout and ornamented carapaces become gradually more common in offshore environments, whereas the abundance of smooth-shelled, smaller and longer taxa increases shorewards. The reasons behind these trends need to be studied further to understand if this reflects a universal pattern in ostracod morphology and palaeoecology.
In the September issue of Linguistica Uralica, a team of experts around the Tartu University scholar Fedor Rozhanski analyses eight different Votic translations of the Lord’s Prayer (Pater Noster) from different periods. In their article “Translations of the Lord’s Prayer into Votic: a linguistic analysis of variation”, they provide a detailed comparison of phonetic, morphological and syntactic features of these translations and discuss decisions made by the translators. Special attention is paid to Votic dialectal variation. The article is in Russian, co-authors are Ekaterina Kuznetsova from Narva and Mehmed Muslimov from Saint Petersburg.
In this issue of Oil Shale, scientists from Taiyuan University of Technology in China present the results of their research in the article “Characteristics of oil and gas production of oil shale pyrolysis by water vapour injection”, where the reader gets new knowledge about how the temperature of pyrolysis affects the properties of the obtained oil and gas as well as the pyrolysis process when water vapour is added.
From another article by Chinese researchers, “Experimental investigation on the hydrocarbon generation of low maturity organic-rich shale in supercritical water”, we find out what results are obtained when oil shale is extracted with solvents in supercritical conditions (500–700 °C).
New knowledge about Mongolian oil shale can be acquired from the article “Investigation of oil shale and its pyrolysis tar from the Uvurjargalant deposit in Mongolia”, and the review article “Thermal methods of solid fuel processing: review” by Kazakhstan researchers is also interesting and novel.
PROCEEDINGS OF THE ESTONIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
In the September 2022 issue of the Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, there is a review article “Aza-peptides: expectations and reality” by Anu Ploom and co-authors from the University of Tartu. The scientists summarize data on aza-peptide bond chemistry, with implications for the improvement of aza-peptide chemical synthesis.
The article “Analysis of possible faults and diagnostic methods of the Cartesian industrial robot” by Siarhei Autsou and co-authors from Tallinn University of Technology discusses problems that occur in robotic arm control. The main objective of this study is to provide a complete overview of the mechanical areas where disturbances occur, their diagnostics, and methods of their elimination.
The article by Thalita Maysha Herninda and co-authors represents an analysis of thermal management in prismatic and cylindrical lithium-ion batteries. Mart Abel from Tallinn University presents a study on Segal topological algebras.
The last contribution is by Ilze Zariņa-Cīrule and co-authors from Riga Technical University. Their research “Efficient capital management using an internal model: a case of non-life insurance” focuses on non-life insurers for reserve risk modelling.
TRAMES. A JOURNAL OF THE HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
The recent issue of Trames contains five articles.
In the opening article, the Spanish scholars Jesus Rodriguez-Pomeda and Fernando Casan analyse contemporary universities and their innovative approaches. This can be thematically associated with Jüri Engelbrecht and Ivo Šlaus’s research paper in our previous issue about the growing role of academies of sciences in today’s world. Two factors are needed to carry out university innovations: university’s identity and dedicated work, to tell the truth to the powerful of our world.
The article by Peiwei Liu (China and Ukraine) and Oksana Lahoda (Ukraine) looks at mannequins in shop windows from the point of view of modern design and visual communication. The authors present a classification of mannequins, based on their function, artistic, aesthetic and symbolic meaning.
Hicran Karataş (Turkey) describes the looting and destruction of Turkish archaeological heritage in connection with folklore, which relies on beliefs stemming from poor awareness about the value of archaeological heritage, and thus looting is tolerated.
Ukrainian scholars Oleg Smoliak, Liliia Protsiv, Oksana Dovhan and Mariia Yevhenieva examine Epiphany carols of Western Podillya. The plot of such carols is based on ancient magic. It is important to glorify celestial bodies – the sun, the moon and the stars – and the earthly family – the master, mistress and children. People also sang about chivalry, activities of the young, marriage, respecting your elders, and about the Son of God, His Mother and saints. Examples of Epiphany carols are presented in Ukrainian and English.
The last article is by Rizwan Yargatti and Arti Muley, who researched Prophet Muhammad’s healthy diet. Knowledge about it primarily relies on legends and records (Hadiths) about the Prophet’s sayings and deeds. According to Hadiths and the Koran, the Prophet’s diet is divided into beverages (water, milk, honey), fruit (dates, grapes, pomegranates, bananas, figs, watermelons, Indian jujube fruits, aloes), vegetables (olives, onions, cucumbers, pumpkins, garlic, ginger, truffles, grains, melons, quince, beetroot, fenugreek, dill, sweet basil, lemons, marjoram, celery), meat (camel, beef, veal, mutton, goat, fish, quail, horse, elephant, locusts, onager, cured meat), dairy products (butter, dried yoghurt, fat/oil), grains (wheat, barley, beans, lentils) and other (nuts, mustard seeds, cumin, saffron, cress, chicory, indigo bush leaves, daffodils, portulaca, sweet edible things).
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Estonian Academy Publishers welcomes new manuscripts. More information can be found on the journals’ websites.